2009年11月27日 星期五

tableau, pump and tub

《永恆的日記──每一天的音樂》 (A Musical Book of Days: A Perpetual Diary)

Saint François d'Assise is an opera in three acts and eight scenes by French composer and librettist Olivier Messiaen, written from 1975 to 1983. It concerns Saint Francis of Assisi, the title character, and displays the composer's devout Catholicism. The world première took place in Paris on November 28, 1983.
其怪的是 牛津大學出版社的書 都說初演是12月 3 acts, 8 tableaux

Director Lone Scherfig does a fine job of painting a tableau of a conservative society as the residents struggle with the rumor of a male streaker in their midst.
Little Giant 566760 Verdigris Calabria Fountain 566760
Calabria Fountain This Italian-style fountain and tub features a hand-finished, weathered verdigris appearance. Water streams continuously into the oval tub from the authentic-looking hand pump. The tub is decorated with classic Latin designs.25"L x 17"W x 28TVerdigris in color

A Pump and Tub.

The pump and tub is a piece of furniture that can be built in the Kitchen of a player-owned house with the Construction skill. Players can, using an empty bucket or other such item, receive water from the pump and tub.

Building a pump and tub requires at least 27 Construction and 10 Steel bars.

大戰狄更斯三百回合:《尼古拉斯 尼克爾貝》緣

2003 年讀到王辛笛家翻譯*狄更斯《尼古拉斯 尼克爾貝》** 之故事。

2006 年元月買到它。

前天瑞麟兄介紹(tableau n. - 生動的場面, 戲劇性局面。日本語 (Japanese) :n. - 絵画, 活人画, 絵画的な描写, 印象的な配列。 此字answers.com資料和圖片俱全,值得參考。)

There was a round of applause every time he spoke. And when, at last, in the pump-and-tub scene, Mrs Grudden lighted the blue fire, and all the unemployed members of the company came in, and tumbled down in various directions--not because that had anything to do with the plot, but in order to finish off with a tableau--the audience (who had by this time increased considerably) gave vent to such a shout of enthusiasm as had not been heard in those walls for many and many a day.
Source: Charles Dickens : « The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby » Chapter 24

他的神氣、他的身形、他的步態、他的眼光、他的每句話和每個動作,都受到贊揚。他一開口,就來一陣喝彩。最後,就是有水泵和洗衣盆的那一場,格拉敦太太點著了藍色的火,剛才未上場的劇團成員全體出台,大摔跟頭,方向各各不同 這跟劇情毫無關係,只是用個熱鬧場面作結罷了 全場觀眾(此時又增加了不少)熱情大喊大叫,是這個劇場裡好多好多天以來不曾聽見過的。


rl 回信;謝謝to rl 那段譯文,我會把前一句原文也補上。


「辛笛的生活要是沒有文綺照料的話,就不太有規律,他總是不記得準時吃藥,有一頓沒一頓的,他的糖尿病在 "文革 "結束後又復發了。每天早上文綺把他要吃的藥放在小瓶蓋子裏,倒好了開水,督促他服用,多少年來如一日,直到文綺自己病得再也無法行動為止。每當限制他吃甜食時,他就發牢騷說: "不能吃糖,那活著多沒勁!再不吃點甜的,我都要低血糖了! "所以文綺善解人意,也會網開一面,隔一段時間讓他解解饞。

早在 "文革" 結束後,上海譯文出版社就有計劃準備出一套狄更斯文集,約請辛笛翻譯其中一部七十餘萬字的長篇小說《尼古拉斯 尼克爾貝》。繁忙的社會活動使辛笛遲遲無法坐下來開展譯事。於是他建議,由杜南星與他兩人合譯此書。
  從此,文綺每天忙完家務,就坐在她的小桌前,一段一段地翻譯,先寫在小紙片上,斟酌修改後再清清楚楚地謄寫在稿紙上。就這樣,日積月累,終於在八十年代末完成。而南星在此之前早已完成了前一半譯稿,並寄至上海。辛笛大病一場後,居家調養,他為文綺堅持不懈的精神所感動,也奮力參加了全書的校譯工作,在 1990年秋將南星和文綺分別翻譯兩部分的譯稿通校了一遍,並寫了長篇譯本序《漫談狄更斯的魅力》,譯稿及序在九十年代初交到了出版社,於 1998年出版。

辛笛很珍視這段日子: "這時,我們兩人共同感到的快慰,不止是在生活而且是在同一工作當中,兩個人的生命河流匯合得更加美好無間,漸漸地,河流變寬了,河岸擴展了,河水流得更平穩了,我們在老境中重新獲得了青春般的喜悅,再沒有時間去留意衰老了。 "」(王聖思 文學報200310 23

詩人伉儷情深 http://www.chinawriter.org/zjljl/zjys/zjys000060.asp

我花了幾年功夫寫成的《智慧是用水寫成的——辛笛傳》清樣出來後,每天讀給母親文綺聽。讀完徵求她的意見,她微微一笑,輕聲說:"你寫的比我現在記得的更全面。" 2003 930 日下午5 05她在平靜和安詳中溘然長逝。



---** 這本最早林紓先生翻譯為『滑稽外史』

The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, (or Nicholas Nickleby for short) is a comic novel of Charles Dickens. Originally published as a serial from 1838 to 1839, it was Dickens' third novel.

The lengthy novel centres around the life and adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, a young man who must support his mother and sister after his father dies. His Uncle Ralph, who thinks Nicholas will never amount to anything, plays the role of an antagonist.

Like nearly all of Dickens' works, the novel has a contemporary setting. Much of the action takes place in London, with the exception of several chapters taking place in Dickens' hometown of Portsmouth, as well as settings in Yorkshire and Devon.

The tone of the work is burlesque, with Dickens taking aim at what he perceives to be social injustices. Many memorable characters are introduced, including Nicholas' malevolent uncle Ralph, and the villainous Wackford Squeers, who operates a squalid boarding school at which Nicholas temporarily serves as a tutor.

While some consider the book to be among the finest works of 19th century comedy, Nicholas Nickleby is occasionally criticized for its lack of character development. It has been adapted for stage, film or television at least seven times. Perhaps the most extraordinary version was produced in 1980 when a large-scale stage production of the novel was produced by David Edgar with music by Stephen Oliver . It was a theatrical experience which lasted more than ten hours with intermissions and a dinner break. It was first performed by the Royal Shakespeare Company and later recorded for television. Many of the actors played multiple roles because of the huge number of characters.

Source: Thomas Hardy : « Tess of the d'Urbervilles » A Pure Woman Chapter XXXV
"O Tess, forgiveness does not apply to the case! You were one person; now you are another. My God--how can forgiveness meet such a grotesque--prestidigitation as that!"


Source: Charles Dickens : « Oliver Twist Or The Parish Boy's Progress » Chapter XXX
There were assembled, in that lower house of the domestic parliament, the women-servants, Mr. Brittles, Mr. Giles, the tinker (who had received a special invitation to regale himself for the remainder of the day, in consideration of his services), and the constable. The latter gentleman had a large staff, a large head, large features, and large half-boots; and he looked as if he had been taking a proportionate allowance of ale--as indeed he had.
Source: Jane Austen : « Mansfield Park » Chapter XLV
They had been long so arranged in the indulgence of her secret meditations, and nothing was more consolatory to her than to find her aunt using the same language: "I cannot but say I much regret your being from home at this distressing time, so very trying to my spirits. I trust and hope, and sincerely wish you may never be absent from home so long again," were most delightful sentences to her. Still, however, it was her private regale. Delicacy to her parents made her careful not to betray such a preference of her uncle's house.
珍‧奧斯汀:《曼斯菲爾莊園》第四十五章── ……然而,這畢竟是她個人的盛宴。體貼父母使得她小心翼翼地避免辜負這次優先選擇叔叔房子的機會。

Source: Rudyard Kipling : « Captains Courageous » Chapter 5
Salters protested that this kind of yarn was desperately wicked, if not indeed positively blasphemous, but he listened as greedily as the others; and their criticisms at the end gave Harvey entirely new notions on "germans," clothes, cigarettes with gold-leaf tips, rings, watches, scent, small dinner-parties, champagne, card-playing, and hotel accommodation.
Source: Leo Tolstoy : « Anna Karenina » Part 6 Chapter 12
"Well, if that's what he wishes, I'll do it, but I can't answer for myself now," she thought, and darted forward as fast as her legs would carry her between the thick bushes. She scented nothing now; she could only see and hear, without understanding anything.

tableau n. - 生動的場面, 戲劇性局面

日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 絵画, 活人画, 絵画的な描写, 印象的な配列

Source: Charles Dickens : « The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby » Chapter 24
There was a round of applause every time he spoke. And when, at last, in the pump-and-tub scene, Mrs Grudden lighted the blue fire, and all the unemployed members of the company came in, and tumbled down in various directions--not because that had anything to do with the plot, but in order to finish off with a tableau--the audience (who had by this time increased considerably) gave vent to such a shout of enthusiasm as had not been heard in those walls for many and many a day.

他的神氣、他的身形、他的步態、他的眼光、他的每句話和每個動作,都受到贊揚。他一開口,就來一陣喝彩。最後,就是有水泵和洗衣盆的那一場,格拉敦太太點著了藍色的火,剛才未上場的劇團成員全體出台,大摔跟頭,方向各各不同 這跟劇情毫無關係,只是用個熱鬧場面作結罷了 全場觀眾(此時又增加了不少)熱情大喊大叫,是這個劇場裡好多好多天以來不曾聽見過的。

杜南星 徐文綺譯

tab·leau (tăb'lō', tă-blō')
n., pl. tab·leaux or tab·leaus (tăb'lōz', tă-blōz').
A vivid or graphic description: The movie was a tableau of a soldier's life.
A striking incidental scene, as of a picturesque group of people: "New public figures suddenly abound in the hitherto faceless totalitarian tableaux" (John McLaughlin).
An interlude during a scene when all the performers on stage freeze in position and then resume action as before.
A tableau vivant.
[French, from Old French tablel, diminutive of table, surface prepared for painting. See table.]

Tableaux Vivant or Tableau Vivant (or sometimes simply Tableau), is French for "living picture". It describes a striking group of suitably costumed artist's models, carefully posed and often theatrically lit. The people shown do not speak or move. The approach thus marries the art forms of the stage with those of painting/photography, and as such it has been of interest to modern photographers.

On a stage
Before radio, film and television, they were popular forms of entertainment. Before the age of colour reproduction of images the tableaux vivant was sometimes used to recreate paintings "on stage", based on an etching or sketch of the painting. This could be done as an amateur venture in a drawing room, or as a more professionally produced series of tableaux presented on a theatre stage, one following another, usually to tell a story without requiring all the usual trappings of a "live" theatre performance. They thus 'educated' their audience to understand the form taken by later Victorian and Edwardian era magic lantern shows, and perhaps also sequential narrative comic strips.

Since stage censorship often strictly forbade actresses to move when semi-nude on stage, tableaux also had a place in presenting erotic entertainment at private clubs (e.g.: the Windmill Theatre) and fairground sideshows. This was superceded by colour pornographic magazines from around the mid 1950s.

Source: William Makepeace Thackeray : « Vanity Fair » Chapter XV In Which Rebecca's Husband Appears for a Short Time
Every reader of a sentimental turn (and we desire no other) must have been pleased with the tableau with which the last act of our little drama concluded; for what can be prettier than an image of Love on his knees before Beauty?

Source: O Henry : « The Four Million » By Courier
"Tell him that I entered the conservatory that evening from the rear, to cut a rose for my mother. Tell him I saw him and Miss Ashburton beneath the pink oleander. The tableau was pretty, but the pose and juxtaposition were too eloquent and evident to require explanation. I left the conservatory, and, at the same time, the rose and my ideal. You may carry that song and dance to your impresario."

January 24, 2006

Among the many temptations of the digital age, photo-manipulation has proved particularly troublesome for science, and scientific journals are beginning to respond.

Some journal editors are considering adopting a test, in use at The Journal of Cell Biology, that could have caught the concocted images of the human embryonic stem cells made by Dr. Hwang Woo Suk.


vt. 混ぜ合わせて作る, 調合する; でっち上げる, 仕組む.

At The Journal of Cell Biology, the test has revealed extensive manipulation of photos. Since 2002, when the test was put in place, 25 percent of all accepted manuscripts have had one or more illustrations that were manipulated in ways that violate the journal's guidelines, said Michael Rossner of Rockefeller University, the executive editor. The editor of the journal, Ira Mellman of Yale, said that most cases were resolved when the authors provided originals. "In 1 percent of the cases we find authors have engaged in fraud," he said.

The two editors recognized the likelihood that images were being improperly manipulated when the journal required all illustrations to be submitted in digital form. While reformatting illustrations submitted in the wrong format, Dr. Rossner realized that some authors had yielded to the temptation of Photoshop's image-changing tools to misrepresent the original data.

In some instances, he found, authors would remove bands from a gel, a test for showing what proteins are present in an experiment. Sometimes a row of bands would be duplicated and presented as the controls for a second experiment. Sometimes the background would be cleaned up, with Photoshop's rubber stamp or clone stamp tool, to make it prettier.

Some authors would change the contrast in an image to eliminate traces of a diagnostic stain that showed up in places where there shouldn't be one. Others would take images of cells from different experiments and assemble them as if all were growing on the same plate.

To prohibit such manipulations, Dr. Rossner and Dr. Mellman published guidelines saying, in effect, that nothing should be done to any part of an illustration that did not affect all other parts equally. In other words, it is all right to adjust the brightness or color balance of the whole photo, but not to obscure, move or introduce an element.

They started checking illustrations in accepted manuscripts by running them through Photoshop and adjusting the controls to see if new features appeared. This is the check that has shown a quarter of accepted manuscripts violate the journal's guidelines.

In the 1 percent of cases in which the manipulation is deemed fraudulent - a total of 14 papers so far - the paper is rejected. Revoking an accepted manuscript requires the agreement of four of the journal's officials. "In some cases we will even contact the author's institution and say, 'You should look into this because it was not kosher,' " Dr. Mellman said.

He and Dr. Rossner plan to add software tests being developed by Hani Farid, an applied mathematician at Dartmouth. With a grant from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which is interested in ways of authenticating digital images presented in court, Dr. Farid is devising algorithms to detect alterations.

His work has attracted interest from many people, he said, including eBay customers concerned about the authenticity of images, people answering personal ads, paranormal researchers studying ghostly emanations and science editors.

For the latter, Dr. Farid is developing a package of algorithms designed to spot specific types of image manipulation. When researchers seek to remove an object from an image, such as a band from a gel, they often hide it with a patch of nearby background. This involves a duplication of material, which may be invisible to the naked eye but can be detected by mathematical analysis.

If an object is enlarged beyond the proper resolution, Photoshop may generate extra pixels. If the object is rotated, another set of pixels is generated in a characteristic pattern.

An object introduced from another photo may have a different angle of illumination. The human eye is largely indifferent to changes in lighting, Dr. Farid said, but conflicting sources of illumination in a single image can be detected by computer analysis and are a sign of manipulation.

"At the end of the day you need math," Dr. Farid said. He hopes to have a set of tools available soon for beta-testing by Dr. Rossner.

Journals depend heavily on expert reviewers to weed out papers of poor quality. But as the Hwang case showed again, reviewers can do only so much. The defined role of reviewers is not to check for concocted data but to test whether a paper's conclusions follow from the data presented.

The screening test addresses an issue reviewers cannot easily tackle, that of whether the presented data accurately reflect the real data. Because journal editors now have the ability to perform this sort of quality control, "they should do it," Dr. Rossner said.

The scientific community has not yet come to grips with the temptations of image manipulation, Dr. Mellman said, and he would like to see other journals adopt the image-screening system, even though it takes 30 minutes a paper. "We are a poor university press," he said, without the large revenue enjoyed by journals such as Nature, Science and Cell. "If they can't bear this cost, something must be dreadfully wrong with their business models," he said.

Science, in fact, has adopted The Journal of Cell Biology's guidelines and has just started to apply the image-screening test to its own manuscripts. "Something like this is probably inevitable for most journals," said Katrina Kelner, a deputy editor of Science.

She became interested as a quality control measure, not because of the concocted papers of Dr. Hwang, two of which Science published. Dr. Mellman says the system would have caught at least the second of Dr. Hwang's fabrications, since it "popped out like a sore thumb" under the image screening test.

But other editors are less enthusiastic. Emilie Marcus, editor of Cell, said that she was considering the system, but that she believed in principle that the ethics of presenting true data should be enforced in a scientist's training, not by journal editors.

The problem of manipulated images, she said, arises from a generation gap between older scientists who set the ethical standards but don't understand the possibilities of Photoshop and younger scientists who generate a paper's data. Because the whole scientific process is based on trust, Dr. Marcus said: "Why say, 'We trust you, but not in this one domain?' And I don't favor saying, 'We don't trust you in any.' "

Rather than having journal editors acting as enforcers, she said, it may be better to thrust responsibility back to scientists, requiring the senior author to sign off that the images conform to the journal's guidelines.

Those guidelines, in her view, should be framed on behalf of the whole scientific community by a group like the National Academy of Sciences, and not by the fiat of individual editors.