2010年1月27日 星期三

the dance of human passions (Shakespeare)

It seems to me that in his response to Shakespeare, Wittgenstein, like Tolstoy, was troubled by the absence of that kind of religious perception permeating Shakespeare's plays. Although, I concede, there is no evidence for this in the first passage. "Shakespeare, one might say, displays the dance of human passions. For this reason he has to be objective, otherwise he would not so much display the dance of human passions—as perhaps talk about it. But he shows us them in a dance, not naturalistically" (CV, 36/42). Here we see again the saying/showing distinction; but there is no hint of any criticism of Shakespeare. And yet, I want to suggest that it is just the so-called "objectivity" of Shakespeare that is the source of Wittgenstein's disaffection. It is this that enables us to make sense of the initially puzzling remarks, "I do not think that Shakespeare can be set alongside any other poet. Was he perhaps a creator of language rather than a poet? . . . The poet cannot [End Page 250] really say of himself 'I sing as the bird sings'—but perhaps S. could have said it of himself" (CV, 84/95–96); and, "I do not think Shakespeare could have reflected on the 'lot of the poet.' Neither could he regard himself as a prophet or a teacher of humanity" (CV, 85/96). Here, as George Steiner has shown, Wittgenstein employs a conception of "the poet" (Dichter) according to which the artist is an ethical visionary, whose every word is duly weighed and considered, imbued and "permeated with" (Tolstoy's expression) a distinctive moral perspective.17 It is here that the contrast with Beethoven is so telling. For Wittgenstein, it was "Beethoven (& perhaps Goethe to a certain extent)" who more than any philosopher, except perhaps Nietzsche, "tackled & wrestled with . . . problems of the intellectual world of the West" (CV, 9/11; written 16th January, 1931).18 Shakespeare is not, in Wittgenstein's eyes, a poet in this sense: he does not struggle with problems of the meaning of life, he is "not a moral teacher."19 He is rather "a creator of language," someone who is, brilliantly and ingeniously no doubt, "playing with words" (as Tolstoy put it).

Peter B. Lewis - Wittgenstein, Tolstoy, and Shakespeare ...

- [ 翻譯此頁 ]由 PB Lewis 著作 - 2005 - 被引用 1 次 - 相關文章
In the very first passage from 1939–40, Wittgenstein points out that Shakespeare "displays the dance of human passions," though "not naturalistically" (CV, ...



這一段 是從 Shakespeare: a very short introduction 引發出的
這書的Shakespeare中文可能採用梁實秋的
是平實兒無文彩的散文

2010年1月15日 星期五

Poetic Justice

Martha Nussbaum's Poetic Justice 诗性正义——文学想象与公共生活

Martha Nussbaum's Poetic Justice

Hard Times
by Charles Dickens as a example for the "educating" function of fictions or novels.


這本書的中文翻譯錯誤還是相當多
有的是抄上海譯文本的問題

诗性正义——文学想象与公共生活

2010年1月11日 星期一

For the soul of Philip Sparrow,

2010年1月11日星期一

dirge, elegy, mourn

. Grieving on Facebook: How the Site Helps People

By Lauren Katims

Facebook doesn't just bring together long-lost friends; it also provides an outlet for mourning people who have died



2004
英文名詩「雀兒菲麗普之死」之引言、挽歌和一些相關資料


緣起 我(HC)上周讀巴特(R. Barthe)的《文之悅》,它引的霍布斯詩為題詞:「恐懼是我唯一激情。」我查The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations 時,發現該書有一段引言,初讀幾乎不懂,就向瑞麟兄求救,經他提示之後,我幾乎通了。本周更進一步查些資料,現在將我們的通信記錄下來。特別謝謝RL。
---
Dear RL, 這引言出自 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations
我有看沒懂。你有興趣破解一番?
John Skelton(1460?-1529)

For the soul of Philip Sparrow,
That was late slain at Carrow
Among the Nunnes Black,
For that sweet soul's sake
And for all sparrows' souls
Set in our bread-rolls,
Pater noster qui
With an Ave Mari.
--The Sparrow's Dirge


底下是hc查些網路上的資料。讀者應先讀下面rl解釋的故事大要(也可參考許多版本的原文『英國文學文選』中的作者身世和作品大要,以及本本文最後指出The New Penguin Book of English Verse 的1500年中 有此詩節選),再回來了解細節。

slay verb [T] slew or slayed, slain
1 UK OLD USE OR LITERARY to kill in a violent way:
St George slew the dragon.

2 (used especially in newspapers) to murder someone:
He was found slain in an alley two blocks from his apartment.

slaying
noun [C] MAINLY US
a murder】


--- 主禱文Pater noster, qui…
Sign of the Cross and the Our Father. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Pater noster, qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum. Adveniat regnum tuum. ... Pater noster, qui es in caelis, Father our who are in Heaven sanctificetur nomen tuum. may-be-hallowed name Your Adveniat regnum tuum

教吟唱:
http://www.kensmen.com/catholic/paterchant.html

--- Ave Mari 聖母頌
The Holy Rosary - Ave Mari 聖母頌,它為基都教失傳的prayer and devotion.法
Two Renaissance Chorals (Adoramus Te / Ave Maria) - SSA, a ...

****
要解這段文字可得先把John Skelton作The Book of Philip Sparrow的來龍去脈弄清楚,似乎找個對英國文學有深入研究的人比較恰當,不過明晨我會約略整理回覆。
引文中的Nunnes Black應該跟nunnery有關,
而For that sweet soul sake我看For that sweet soul's sake才對。


rl
21:00 2004/5/30
****
查閱手邊的兩大本Dictionary of Quotations (Oxford和Bartlett's Family),並沒有你函中所引的文句。
再查手邊的協志叢書:英國文學史,John Skelton的相關資料也寥寥無幾(總共三行,卷一p.133),茲鈔錄如下:
……
6.雀兒菲麗普之死(The Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe)作於1510年左右。女學生珍‧斯克魯帕所寵愛的一隻雀兒被她所豢養的貓給吃掉了。詩人代她寫這首哀悼的詩。一千四百行的遊戲之作,但是也諷刺了羅馬教會的飾終典禮。
……
協志叢書所記之作品名稱,我想(未經查證)應該是當時的英文,現在都寫成The Book of Philip Sparrow。
女 學生珍‧斯克魯帕的原文名字為Jane Scrope【Scroupe-hc】,我猜她是Carrow Abbey的修女,這是由Nunnes Black推斷的,但是我目前不知道Black代表什麼意思(膚色嗎?),我昨晚說nunnes跟nunnery有關,或許是nun的複數?

那隻咬死雀兒的貓是不是女孩飼養的,我不確定,有一說是在Carrow Abbey的貓。
這 篇出眾的詩是史克爾頓(協志叢書譯作斯凱爾頓)決定嘗試以新格式(現在稱為史克爾頓體)作詩的最好範例,當時正值英語在快速改變的時候,這一首詩是傳統和 新潮之間的一個超級妥協。就好像許多孩子有時候會煞費苦心地為他們死去的寵物舉行埋葬儀式一樣,Jane Scrope也不例外。整首詩大致瀏覽了一遍,應該只是一種模擬彌撒吧。

暫時還沒有著手逐行翻譯,正在思考引文中的 qui 是否和法文的 qui 同一個字?也正在想 dirge 和 elegy 的差異?但是應該對你有丁點兒幫助才是。
rl
08:30 2004/5/31

****
謝謝你,幫助極大。這是用天主教追終祭典來寫的,所以這首遊戲之作的翻譯和注解,應該頗有教育作用。

《教育部國語辭典》
挽歌:解釋 哀悼死者的歌【中文「牽引」義】。《南朝宋˙劉義慶˙世說新語˙任誕》:「袁山松出遊,每好令左右作挽歌。」亦作「輓歌」【hc:據辭海解釋:漢武帝勞役之人的喪歌,後來李延年有二曲】。相反詞「頌歌」 【hc:不知道中文的名作為何?】

Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms
Dirge, a song of lamentation in mourning for someone's death; or a poem in the form of such a song, and usually less elaborate than anelegy. An ancient genre employed by Pindar in Greek and notably by Propertius in Latin. The dirge also occurs in English, most famously in the ariel's song 'Full fathom five thy father lies' in shakespear's The Tempest.

我抄這段,才恍然大悟梁兄翻譯的<<大海,大海>>之作者Iris MURDOCK的先生John Bayley所寫的《輓歌》(Elegy for Iris,有天下文化出版社翻譯本),實在有典故,都沒被翻譯和導讀人員點破,因為Iris 酷愛莎士比亞的Tempest
***
我抄的沒錯。英國文學中當然有許多人寫dirges,莎士比亞作品中的,只不過是較為出名。據M. H.Abram的The Glossary of Literature Terms,挽歌(dirge)不同於哀歌(elegy—hc:我們或聽過Thomas Gray 於1751年寫的Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard,The New Penguin Book of English Verse,p. 484;美國總統甘迺迪遇刺後,名詩人Auden寫Elegy,由斯特拉文斯基譜曲)的地方,是挽歌較短、較不茍形式、並且,通常挽歌可配曲唱。除了前引的莎士比亞之「海下長眠」,還可舉William Collins的A Somg From Shakespeare's Cymbeline.

下面為作者和作品的某些資訊:
http://bookweb.kinokuniya.co.jp/guest/cgi-bin/booksea.cgi?ISBN=0140586717

Table of Contents
The New Penguin Book of English Verse-
This is an anthology of English verse. Poems are ordered by date of composition rather than in monolithic slabs devoted to individual poets. It also includes a high proportion of anonymous poetry and written on surfaces other than paper.
Skeltonics are the prime effect used in "The Tunning of Elinour Rumming", which is a rollicking satire of an alewife who adulterates her brew. An example of skeltonics can clearly be seen in the following short excerpt from Phyllyp Sparrowe:
Somtyme he wolde gaspe
Whan he sawe a waspe;
A fly or a gnat,
He wolde flye at that
And prytely he wold pant
Whan he saw an ant;
Lorde, how wolde hop
After the greesop!
And whan I sayd, Phyp, Phyp,
Than he wold lepe and skyp,
And take me by the lyp.

This essay written by Karen Elaine Smyth, Queen's University of Belfast
http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=5490

Title: From Chaucer to Tennyson
Author: Henry A. Beers
Release Date: March 17, 2004 [eBook #11618]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
http://www.gutenberg.net/1/1/6/1/11618/11618-h/11618-h.htm


mourn

v., mourned, mourn·ing, mourns. v.intr.
  1. To feel or express grief or sorrow. See synonyms at grieve.
  2. To show grief for a death by conventional signs, as by wearing black clothes.
  3. To make a low, indistinct, mournful sound. Used especially of a dove.
v.tr.
  1. To feel or express deep regret for: mourned the wasted years.
  2. To grieve over (someone who has died).
  3. To utter sorrowfully.

[Middle English mournen, from Old English murnan.]

mourner mourn'er n.
mourningly mourn'ing·ly adv.

2010年1月5日 星期二

Sydney Smith and others

The Selected Writings of Sydney Smith: Edited by W. H. Auden

Synopsis:

'He is a very clever fellow, but he will never be a bishop.' George III

'A more profligate parson I never met.' George IV

'I sat next to Sydney Smith, who was delightful ... I don't remember a more agreeable party.' Benjamin Disraeli

'I wish you would tell Mr Sydney Smith that of all the men I ever heard of and never saw, I have the greatest curiosity to see ... and to know him.' Charles Dickens

How one agrees with Dickens. Without doubt, Sydney Smith was the most famous wit of his generation. But there was more to him than that, he was an outstanding representative of the English liberal tradition.

Starting as an impoverished village curate he went to Edinburgh as a tutor, and co-founded the Edinburgh Review, the first major nineteenth-century periodical. Happily married, he moved in 1803 to London, where he was introduced into the Holland House circle - of which he quickly became an admired and popular member - but at the age of thirty-eight a Tory government banished him to a village parsonage. There he became 'one of the best country vicars of whom there is a record', and after his two chief causes - the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 and the Reform Bill of 1832 - triumphed, he was rewarded by a canonry of St. Paul's.

This generous selection of his writings gives the full flavour of his mind and intellectual personality. In a characteristically stimulating introduction in which he discusses Sydney Smith both as an individual and as a shining exemplar of the liberal mind, W. H. Auden places him with Jonathan Swift and Bernard Shaw among the few polemic authors 'who must be ranked very high by any literary standard.'

As Macaulay said he was 'The Smith of Smiths'.




"Pease Porridge Hot" , gruel, profligacy


How Mr Hatoyama both motivates bureaucrats and punishes them when they step out of line will make or break the DPJ. The crucial battle comes between now and December, in drawing up the budget for the 2010 fiscal year. Ministries have already submitted their spending plans, including pork for favoured groups, hoping for the usual lack of political oversight. The DPJ promises to rebuild the budget-making process from scratch, going through programmes line by line. That, too, is a chance for the new government to show that it is not as profligate as its opponents have claimed.


Military-Industrial Redux

If there is any hope of reining in Pentagon profligacy, President Obama and his secretary of defense, Robert Gates, will have to show real steel and eternal vigilance.






And if canonical genes are too thin a gruel to explain yourself to yourself, you can always reach for the stalwart of scapegoats. Blame it all on your mother, who surely loved you too much or too little or in all the wrong ways.



這種英文兒歌只重視音律之美


"Pease Porridge Hot"

Pease porridge hot,
Pease porridge cold,
Pease porridge in the pot,
Nine days old.

Some like it hot,
Some like it cold,
Some like it in the pot,
Nine days old.

Pease porridge hot
Pease porridge cold,
Pease porridge in the pot, nine days old.
Some like it hot,
Some like it cold,
Some like it in the pot, nine days old.

pease

(pēz) pronunciation

n. Archaic., pl. pease or peas·en ('zən).

A pea.

[Middle English. See pea.]

【廢】豌豆


porridge顯示/隱藏例句

KK: []
DJ: []
n. (名詞 noun)
  1. 粥,糊,麥片粥[U]
  2. 一盤燕麥粥


porridge

[POR-ihj] A thick, puddinglike dish made of cereal or grain (usually oatmeal) cooked in water or milk. Porridge is usually eaten hot for breakfast with sugar and milk or cream.






A gruel is much like a thin porridge made with water, but is more often drunk.
Emma I:3
Such another small basin of thin gruel as his own, was all that he could, with thorough self-approbation, recommend, though he might constrain himself, while the ladies were comfortably clearing the nicer things, to say:

RL版:
經過自己徹底的嘗試,他願意建議客人另外再來一小盤像他自己吃的稀粥;可是,當女士們愉快的吃光那些美食時,他會勉強自己說:



Mr. Woodhouse's Thin Gruel

The gruel came and supplied a great deal to be said -- much praise and many comments -- undoubting decision of its wholesomeness for every constitution, and pretty severe Philippics upon the many houses where it was never met with tolerable; -- but, unfortunately, among the failures which the daughter had to instance, the most recent, and therefore most prominent, was in her own cook at South End, a young woman hired for the time, who never had been able to understand what she meant by a basin of nice smooth gruel, thin, but not too thin.
Emma


Of all Jane Austen's hypochrondriacs, perhaps her most endearing is Mr. Woodhouse. Afraid of germs, draughts, too rich food and all manner of nervous complaints brought on by change, he forces himself, and often those around him, to live on a diet of plain foods:

"My poor dear Isabella," said he, fondly taking her hand, and interrupting, for a few moments, her busy labours for some one of her five children -- "How long it is, how terribly long since you were here! And how tired you must be after your journey! You must go to bed early, my dear -- and I recommend a little gruel to you before you go. -- You and I will have a nice basin of gruel together. My dear Emma, suppose we all have a little gruel."

Emma could not suppose any such thing, knowing as she did, that both the Mr Knightleys were as unpersuadable on that article as herself; -- and two basins only were ordered.
Gruel was, by nature, a dish reserved for the very poor, who could afford nothing else, and invalids, who could tolerate nothing else. A type of thin porridge, it is made of oats stewed with either milk or water, and is served with salt or sugar and milk.

The first evidence for dishes resembling porridge is prehistoric. Neolithic farmers cultivated oats along with other crops. Various types of grains and grain meals could be stewed in water to form a thick porridge-like dish. Anglo Saxon sources describe "briw" or "brewit" made from rye meal, barley meal or oats served plain or with vegetables in. There are also references to some types of porridges being fermented.

Porridges and gruels were an easy way to cook grains. The grain only had to be cracked, not completely ground into flour. It could be cooked very simply in a pot at the edge of a fire. Bread required an oven to cook in. It formed a basis for many dishes, both sweet and savoury. It was served with meat, stock or fat, as well as with vegetables, fruits, honey or spices. It could be allowed to cool and set in a "porridge drawer", and could then be sliced to be eaten cold or even fried.

Eighteenth Century cookbooks such as Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy, 1747, give recipes for "Water Gruel" made of oatmeal and water, and flavoured with butter and pepper. It might be served with wine sauce, sherry and dried fruits by rich people, whereas the poor ate the dish on its own. It could be served with any meal at any time of the day. Sugar only became widely available in Britain in the Eighteenth Century, so it was probably not used on porridge before then.

Oliver Twist As a inexpensive dish, Gruel or Porridge became the meal of choice served at workhouses around the nation in the early to mid 1800's. In 1837, Charles Dickens sarcastically wrote "...that all poor people should have the alternative of being starved by a gradual process in the [work] house, or by a quick one out of it. With this view, they contracted with the water-works to lay on an unlimited supply of water, and with a corn-factory (grain processor) to supply periodically small quantities of oatmeal, and issued three meals of thin gruel a day...."* Who can forget the image of young Oliver Twist asking, "Please sir, may I have some more?"

This is not to say that all porridges were reserved for the indigent. Oats were a kitchen staple at the time for every household and many richer versions found their way on the tables of the wealthy as well as the working class.These dishes included plumb porridge or barley gruel, made from barley and water, with dried fruit added. Burstin was made by roasting hulled barley grains and then grinding them, it could then be served with milk Frumenty was hulled wheat cooked with milk, cream and eggs and flavoured with spices. SUrely Mr. Woodhouse would have been shocked at such profligacy!





'A more profligate parson I never met.' George IV


prof·li·gate (prŏf'lĭ-gĭt, -gāt') pronunciation
adj.
  1. Given over to dissipation; dissolute.
  2. Recklessly wasteful; wildly extravagant.
n.
A profligate person; a wastrel.

[Latin prōflīgātus, past participle of prōflīgāre, to ruin, cast down : prō-, forward; see pro-1 + -flīgāre, intensive of flīgere, to strike down.]

profligacy prof'li·ga·cy (-gə-sē) n.
profligately prof'li·gate·ly adv.


profligacy
n.[See Profligate, a.]
The quality of state of being profligate; a profligate or very vicious course of life; a state of being abandoned in moral principle and in vice; dissoluteness.

Meaning #1: the trait of spending extravagantly
Synonyms: extravagance, prodigality

Meaning #2: dissolute indulgence in sensual pleasure
Synonyms: dissipation, dissolution, licentiousness