Times Topics: William Shakespeare
By JESS WINFIELD
Reviewed by LIESL SCHILLINGER
A debut novel about William Shakespeare and his American alter ego, a hash-smoking grad student named Willie Shakespeare Greenberg.
The first folio was one of several items stolen in 1998
A man has been bailed by police after being detained over the theft of the "most important book in the English language" that was stolen 10 years ago.
The 1623 first folio (wide-paged book) of a collection of works by William Shakespeare could be worth £15m.
It was one of a number of literary works taken from Durham university in December 1998.
Police said the suspect, aged 51, allegedly asked a library in the US to value the work.
The unnamed man was bailed after being questioned at Durham City police station.
A Durham Police spokesman said a man, claiming to be an international businessman who had acquired the volume in Cuba, showed it to staff at the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington DC and asked them to verify it was genuine.
He agreed to leave it with librarians, whose research revealed it to have been stolen.
It was one of the first collected editions of Shakespeare's plays printed. Only between 200 and 300 copies are thought to have survived around the world.
This book is a national treasure giving a rare and beautiful snapshot of Britain's incredible literary heritage
Durham University chancellor Bill Bryson
A spokesman for Durham University said staff were "rejoicing" following the recovery of the book, described by experts as "the most important book in the English language" at the time of its theft.
The man was arrested on Thursday at an address in Wigeon Close, Washington, Tyne and Wear, after the British Embassy in the US alerted Durham Police to the find two weeks ago.
The stolen items were part of an exhibit of 50 examples of English literature dating from the Middle Ages to the 20th Century.
Other items taken in the university raid included a handwritten manuscript of an English translation of the New Testament from the 14th Century.
Also stolen was a book by 10th Century scholar Aelfric, written in 1566, a first edition of Beowulf from 1815 and a handwritten manuscript from the early 15th Century containing a fragment of a poem by Canterbury Tales author Geoffrey Chaucer.
The Durham Police spokesman said officers were working with the FBI in the United States.
Bill Bryson, chancellor of Durham University and author of an acclaimed book on Shakespeare, said: "This is not only wonderful news for Durham University but for all Shakespeare's scholars and fans around the world, of which I am most definitely one.
"Like Shakespeare himself, this book is a national treasure giving a rare and beautiful snapshot of Britain's incredible literary heritage."
The Shakespeare first folio was acquired by John Cosin, former Bishop of Durham, and was part of the library he established in Durham in 1669.University vice-chancellor, Prof Chris Higgins, added: "Our security has been very significantly reviewed and enhanced to the highest standards since the theft 10 years ago and we are confident the first folio will be safe when it arrives back in Durham."
TEh INTeRn3T i5 THr3@+EN1N9 t0 Ch@n93 thE W4Y wE $p34k.
(Translation: The Internet is threatening to change the way we speak.)
For years, heavy users of Internet games and chat groups have conversed in their own written language, often indecipherable to outsiders. Now, some of those online words are gaining currency in popular culture -- even in spoken form.
Online gamers use "pwn" to describe annihilating an opponent, or owning them. The word came from misspelling "own" by gamers typing quickly and striking the letter P instead of the neighboring letter O. Other words substitute symbols or numbers for similar-looking letters, such as the number 3 for the letter E. The language is sometimes called elite speak, or leetspeak, written as l33t 5p34k.
There is no standardized code. The letter A, for example, can have several replacements, including 4, /\, @ , /-\, ^, and aye.
As the Internet becomes more prevalent, leetspeak, including acronyms that used to appear only in text messages like "LOL" for laughing out loud, is finding a voice.
"I pone you, you're going down dude, lawl!" is how Johnathan Wendel says he likes to taunt opponents in person at online gaming tournaments. Pone is how he pronounces "pwn," and lawl is how "LOL" usually sounds when spoken. Mr. Wendel, 26 years old, has earned more than $500,000 in recent years by winning championships in Internet games like Quake 3 and Alien vs. Predator 2. His screen name is Fatal1ty.
During the televised World Series of Poker last year, one player, remarking on a deft move, told an opponent that he had been "poned." In an episode of the animated TV show "South Park," one of the characters shouted during an online game, "Looks like you're about to get poned, yeah!" Another character later marveled, "That was such an uber-ponage."
One problem with speaking in such code: there is little agreement on pronunciation.
Jarett Cale, the 29-year-old star of an Internet video series called "Pure Pwnage," enunciates the title "pure own-age." This is correct since "pwn" was originally a typo, he argues, and sounds "a lot cooler." But many of the show's fans, which he estimates at around three million, prefer to say pone-age, he acknowledges. Others pronounce it poon, puh-own, pun or pwone.
"I think we're probably losing the war," says Mr. Cale, whose character on the show, Jeremy, likes to wear a black T-shirt with the inscription, "I pwn n00bs." (That, for the uninitiated, means "I own newbies," or amateurs.)
Those who utter the term "teh" are also split. A common online misspelling of "the," "teh" has come to mean "very" when placed in front of an adjective -- such as "tehcool" for "very cool." Some pronounce it tuh, others tay.
The words' growing offline popularity has stoked the ire of linguists, parents and others who denounce them as part of a broader debasement of the English language.
"There used to be a time when people cared about how they spoke and wrote," laments Robert Hartwell Fiske, who has written or edited several books on proper English usage, including one on overused words titled "The Dimwit's Dictionary."
When a reader of his online journal, called the Vocabula Review, proposed "leet," as in leetspeak, for his list of best words, Mr. Fiske rejected it.
"Leet: slang for 'good' or 'great,' apparently, and 'idiotic,' certainly," he wrote on the Vocabula Web site. "Leet" is in dictionaries with other meanings, including a soft-finned fish.
Lake Superior State University, in Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., this year included "pwn" on its annual list of banned words and phrases -- those it considers misused, overly used and just plain useless. Others on the list included "awesome" and "Gitmo" (shorthand for Guantanamo Bay).
Some suggest such verbal creations are nothing new and are integral to how language evolves.
Gail Kern Paster, director of the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C., has reason to believe that a certain English poet and playwright would cheer the latest linguistic leap. Just as the rise of the printed word and the theater spurred many new expressions during Shakespeare's time, the computer revolution, she notes, has necessitated its own vocabulary -- like "logging in" and "Web site."
"The issue of correctness didn't bother him," says Ms. Paster. "He loved to play with language." As for leet, "He would say, 'Bring it on,' absolutely."
The word "OK," one of the most widely used words in many languages, first appeared in a Boston newspaper in 1839 as an abbreviation for "oll korrect," according to Allan Metcalf, a professor of English at MacMurray College in Jacksonville, Ill. Other abbreviations, such as O.F.M. for our first men, referring -- sometimes sarcastically -- to a community's leading citizens, also became briefly popular in Boston newspapers at the time, says Mr. Metcalf.
The Internet is not the first technological advancement to change the way language is used. The telegraph required people to communicate "with lots of dots and dashes and abbreviations," says Mr. Metcalf. "Since it charged by the word, you compressed your message as much as possible -- grammar be damned."
Some of those words, like SOS, the popular call for help, have survived from their telegraph-era origins.
Leetspeak first became popular in the 1980s among hackers and those adept enough to gain access to an early form of online chat forums called bulletin boards. These "elite" users developed leetspeak, occasionally to conceal their hacking plans or elude text filters. (It still has that use for some: "pr0n" is leetspeak for pornography.)
But leetspeak's growing appeal, and use among the un-cool, could undermine it. "Now moms are saying, 'LOL,' so that takes away from it," says Mr. Cale of the Internet show "Pure Pwnage."
A couple of years ago, Katherine Blashki, a professor of new media studies, didn't understand some of the words used by her students at Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. Her subsequent, semester-long research on the subject found their use of leetspeak stemmed partly from wanting to find faster ways to express themselves online. As with other forms of jargon, it also enhanced a sense of belonging to a community, she says.
"It's ultimately about creating a secret language that can differentiate them from others, like parents," says Ms. Blashki. "That's part of being a teenager."
She presented her work at a conference in Spain and has since written nearly a dozen research papers on the topic. She admits she hasn't received much grant funding for her work. "My peers were aghast," she says.
Despite their facility with the new language, some leet fans insist that good grammar is still important.
Mr. Wendel, the online gamer, says he makes a point of using proper capitalization and punctuation in his online missives during competition. "It's always a last resort," says Mr. Wendel. "If you lose you can say, 'At least I can spell.'"
Write to Christopher Rhoads at email@example.com
LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST by William Shakespeare
(愛的徒勞)；. Love's Labour's Lost. 莎士比亞喜劇【空愛一場】。1594或1595年首演。諷刺當時裝腔作勢的社會風氣。Wikipedia article "Love's Labour's Lost".
Where the Wrong Gift Can Mean Loves Labors Lost
SEOUL, South Korea When two young television stars called it quits only 12 days after their wedding recently, their very public and acrimonious divorce shined a rare spotlight on the underside of marriage in South Korea.
Independence was in the air as well as on the calendar for the world premiere on July 4 of Mark Morris's "Romeo & Juliet, on Motifs of Shakespeare." His Prokofiev-inspired, four-act ballet came to the stage of Bard College's Fisher Center innocently independent of some 70 years of history framing the work born in Russia.
What Sergey Prokofiev and his dramatist collaborator Sergey Radlov planned initially for Moscow's Bolshoi Ballet was scuttled in the mid-1930s under the terrible regime of Stalin, ostensibly for its rewriting of Shakespeare to give the stage classic a "happy" ending.
But such upbeat endings were not without precedent in Soviet art. Tchaikovsky's intended, tragic conclusion for "Swan Lake" was readily changed to a lyrical alternative in productions within Soviet Russia. What seems to have rankled Stalin's watchdogs was Prokofiev's temerity in bucking an authority such as Shakespeare and proceeding independently with ideas of his own. As Prokofiev put it, recalling his motivation to rework Shakespeare's tragedy and keep Romeo and Juliet alive: "Living people can dance; the dying cannot."
|The second cast for the title roles in 'Romeo & Juliet,' Maile Okamura and Noah Vinson, fared better than the premiere cast.|
Eventually, in 1940, an approved, reworked Prokofiev score for "Romeo and Juliet," with the title characters meeting tragic ends, was staged by Leonid Lavrovsky for Leningrad's Kirov Ballet. Over the next decades, some 90 choreographic hands inside and outside Russia have had their go at the altered work.
Enter Prokofiev scholar Simon Morrison and his recent discovery of the original score and its plans in a Moscow archive. He chose Mr. Morris to stage the work as originally written and conceived by Prokofiev. The modern-dance choreographer and director of his own company, the Mark Morris Dance Group, has said that he took on the project only because the score was now fresh and thus presented a challenging opportunity to create a vehicle for his own dancers.
Mr. Morris has noted in interviews that the 1930s "Romeo and Juliet" is more "through-composed," meaning that the famously music-minded choreographer found the older four-act score less choppy than the reworked three-act version the composer was forced to accept.
Mr. Morris's production, as shown over the weekend in the cozy confines of the Fisher Center's Sosnoff Theater, is about as intimate and idiosyncratic as many previous versions have been large-scale and sweeping. Allen Moyer's sets are natural-wood-toned in hue and include charming little Renaissance buildings that act as much like furniture as like background architecture. Martin Pakledinaz's costumes are dance-friendly reductions of 14th-century Italianate fashion.
Mr. Morris decidedly avoids ballet's way with applause-getting high points, such as punctuational strokes that use expansively taut, dramatically held poses and acrobatically scaled lifts to cap individual scenes. With his modern-dance stress on gesture -- often colorfully and wittily detailed here with Italian street gesticulation of Mr. Morris's own inventive devising -- and on weighted footwork that paces the narrative action noticeably on the pulse of Prokofiev's rhythms, this "Romeo and Juliet" is more like a pageant and home-spun tapestry than a cinematic, operatic spectacle. The swordplay is all with wooden weapons, lending the artfully reductive nature of Mr. Morris's theatrics a faux-naïf dimension: Think a little of "Peter Pan."
The Mark Morris Dance Group rises happily to the occasion. Almost every subsidiary character is clear and colorful without distorting the "through-line" of the choreography's internal impetus. Joe Bowie's formidable but never bluff Escalus, Samuel Black's amusing but not cutesy Peter, and Lauren Grant's feisty but not vulgar Nurse are just three of the lesser roles that stand out amid the storytelling. The casting of female dancers as the male characters Tybalt and Mercutio, however, is occasionally more puzzling than pointed.
Not all of Prokofiev's original intentions serve the unfolding drama well. The repeated scenes of the festival that frame Romeo and Juliet's arresting wedding scene seem to cry out for trimming. The three gift-presentation dances to celebrate the planned nuptials of Juliet and Paris are show-stopping in a less than desirable sense.
So far, also, the respective title roles -- which fared better in a second cast, with Noah Vinson and Maile Okamura, than with David Leventhal and Rita Donahue in the premiere cast -- fail to claim the full focus of our attention. Mr. Morris introduces his protagonists neatly: Romeo as something of a poetic loner on a Verona street and Juliet as a delicately willful daughter in her father's house. But, while the choreographer's direction of each often shows them consistently outside the social life of their elders, as single-minded teens can tend to be, their specific choreography seems almost offhand at times.
Both characters memorably share a recurring and pretty pose -- the flicking of one leg behind the other as if confidently kicking up their heels. It's essentially, however, not until the elegiac "happy ending" duet that constitutes the newly discovered Act 4 epilogue -- set with a blue sky and glowing stars -- that the couple's choreography sets them truly apart in notable dance terms.
But Mr. Morris's ambitious undertaking seems still to be evolving. When I noted to a company spokesman that much of the music sounded more similar than I expected to the Stalin-approved version, with its attendant heaviness, I was told that there was some disagreement with Leon Botstein, the American Symphony Orchestra conductor and Bard College president, about this, and that Mr. Morris plans to work further to get the score eventually lightened to what he and Mr. Morrison understand to be Prokofiev's intentions.
More work and more independence remain in the stars for Prokofiev's "Romeo and Juliet." Happy endings rarely come easily.
Mr. Greskovic writes about dance for the Journal.
根據Shakespeares Words一書，Quality 一字在莎士比亞作品中有九義。
現在談一義，它出自Sir Edward Elgar( 1857-1934，今年是誕生150年慶)的(威儀堂堂進行曲)（Pomp and Circumstance March No.1 In D Major Op.39）--英國的地下（非正式）國歌，曲名引莎士比亞的Othello說法。中文的音樂blog不多，不過可以找到：
「Pomp and Circumstance March No.1
London Symphony Orchestra Sir George Solti
由 chinchun 發表於 March 27, 2004 04:54 PM
POMP AND CIRCUMSTANCE MARCHES, OP. 39
(Note: March No. 1 later became "Land of Hope and Glory") Duration for all five marches: 30 minutes
The title is taken from from Act III, Scene 3, lines 347--354 of Shakespeare's Othello, where Othello says:
O, now for ever
Farewell the tranquil mind! farewell content!
Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars
That make ambition virtue! O, farewell!
Farewell the neighing steed and the shrill trump,
The spirit-stirring drum, th'ear-piercing fife,
The royal banner, and all quality,
Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war!
這段，都只是散文體 梁實秋的翻譯比較按部就班 朱的有掉plumed等字眼：
British actor and theater manager who was considered the foremost Shakespearean player of his time.
"I am disappointed by that stroke of death that has eclipsed the gaiety of nations, and impoverished the public stock of harmless pleasure."
其實 原先Usury 非高利貸 只是放利之財務番方式
The Social Background of Luther's "Trade and Usury" ... ルター「商業・利子論」の社会的背景.
這在莎士比亞 劇中都如此 譬如說 威尼斯商人或
劇中都如此 譬如說 威尼斯商人或
Did you but know the city's usuries And felt them knowingly; the art o' the court As hard to leave as keep; whose top to climb ...
by B. J. Sokol, Mary Sokol - 2005 - Literary Criticism - 497 pages