2009年1月15日 星期四

The Dynasts 筆記

The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Dynasts, by Thomas Hardy #24 in our series

The "Spirit of the Years" say that Pitt's words,

PITT (standing up after repeated calls)

My lords and gentlemen:--You have toasted me

As one who has saved England and her cause.

I thank you, gentlemen, unfeignedly.

But--no man has saved England, let me say:

England has saved herself, by her exertions:

She will, I trust, save Europe by her example!

[Loud applause, during which he sits down, rises, and sits down again. The scene then shuts, and the night without has place.]

SPIRIT OF THE YEARS

Those words of this man Pitt--his last large words,

As I may prophesy--that ring to-night

In their first mintage to the feasters here,

Will spread with ageing, lodge, and crystallize,

And stand embedded in the English tongue

Till it grow thin, outworn, and cease to be.--

So is't ordained by That Which all ordains;

For words were never winged with apter grace.

Or blent with happier choice of time and place,

To hold the imagination of this strenuous race.


... Will spread with ageing, lodge, and crystallize,

And stand embedded in the English tongue

Till it grows thin, outworn and ceased to be..

杜衡先生的翻譯很不理想

到將來卻一定會一代一代地傳下去

堅固而永久保存在英吉利的語言裡

直到這語言陳舊而消滅了 才被人忘記

━━ n. 老化; (酒などの)熟成 .

LODGE

To be or become embedded: The ball lodged in the fence.

. 停留 ;嵌入 ;卡住 [Q][(+in)]

A bullet lodged in his left shoulder.

一顆子彈嵌在他的左肩。

關於哈代《统治者》的一些筆記

『哈代創作論集』、『托馬斯 哈代 思想和創作』

dy·nast (dī'năst', -nəst) n. 王朝的君主, 元首; 日本語 (Japanese)n. - 支配者, 君主

A ruler, especially a hereditary one.

[Latin dynastēs, from Greek dunastēs, lord, from dunasthai, to be able.]

dy·nas·ty (dī'nə-stē) n., pl. -ties. n. - 朝代, 王朝

A succession of rulers from the same family or line.

A family or group that maintains power for several generations: a political dynasty controlling the state.

[Middle English dynastie, from Old French, from Late Latin dynastīa, lordship, from Greek dunasteia, from dunastēs, lord. See dynast.]

A sports dynasty is a team which has a run of successive championships.

1967年,讀到《统治者》史詩。當時世局很動蕩,然而我成長的台中市,如此充滿朝氣持續繁榮。我對於詩劇中的史觀略有所感。

1982年在竹東鎮,讀到一張法國人作的圖與數據:完整表現拿破崙長征之慘烈犧牲;當場,議會中全場抱頭痛哭。 1997年在台北市,翻譯到『戴明領導手冊』,作者引用它。

2004 年讀到:……「規模宏大,氣勢磅礡的史詩劇《列王》( 1907-08 HC按:應為 1903-08,即《统治者》)。這部以拿破崙戰爭為題材,描寫「巨大的歷史災難或各民族之間的衝突」(《列王》 序)的史詩劇,共分三卷,十九幕,一百三十場,既是一部以英國和整個歐洲社會的重大變革為背景的歷史詩劇,也是一部富有深刻哲理的關於人類命運的悲劇史詩。《列王》問世後震動了英國文壇,受到歐美評論界的一致稱頌,認為《列王》是哈代最偉大的作品,充分顯示了哈代的才華,堪與彌爾頓的史詩《失樂園》和俄國文豪托爾斯泰的《戰爭與和平》媲美。」(劉新民《哈代文集 詩選 前言》 人民文學出版社( p.3))

應該重讀重寫重譯哈代《统治者》。

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1880 《喇叭-市長》出版。這是哈代最早涉及拿破崙戰爭題材的作品。HC評:《喇叭-市長》翻譯錯誤,應該是《喇叭長》( {Trumpet major} (Mil.), the chief trumpeter of a band or regiment. )這本小說網路可取得:http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext01/trpmj10.txt ,無中文翻譯,有日文翻譯本( 邦訳)ラッパ長)。

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1903 哈代擴充了關於拿破崙及其王朝破滅的劇作,出版《統治者》第一部。哈代將其視為自己的傑作。1906 《統治者》第二部出版。1908 《統治者》第三部出版。

哈代『統治者』(十冊)( THE DYNASTS: AN EPIC-DRAMA OF THE WAR WITH NAPOLEON )杜衡譯(漢譯世界名著甲編六百冊),台北:商務印書館,1966。這應該是大陸時期的作品在台灣再出版(上海商務印書館印『萬有文庫之三』),不過,大陸似乎也只有專家才知道有這本翻譯。

翻譯者杜衡何許人?我在網路上找到的其他作品:

◎法國作家法郎士(A.rance,1844—1924)。《泰綺思》(長篇小說),作于一八九一年。它的兩种中譯本是:《黛絲》,杜衡譯,一九二八年開明書店出版 …..

() 海纳(海涅 )著《还乡集》,杜衡译,尚志书屋出版,1929

蘇汶( 杜衡) 譯的《無產階級藝術底批評》,1928

施蟄存《〈戴望舒譯詩集〉序》,《文藝百話》第224頁,華東師範大學出版社,1994年。按,由戴望舒和杜衡合譯的這部《道生詩歌全集》也有部分曾在當時刊物上發表,如署名戴望舒、杜衡譯的《道生詩抄》載於1929年11月15日出版的《新文藝》第1卷第3號,"全集"則在戴望舒死後由施蟄存保存,居然無損無厄,如今已全部編入浙江文藝出版社1989年出版的《戴望舒詩全編》中。

民國廿四年《未名文苑》第三本是杜衡的長篇小說《叛徒》

專論:

日文有The dynasts ( 『霸者』詩劇--- 研究社英文学叢書) / Thomas Hardy著・〔沢村寅二郎訳注〕1983

英文:

The dynasts : an epic-drama of the war with Napoleon, in three parts, nineteen acts, and one hundred and thirty scenes, the time covered by the action being about ten years / by Thomas Hardy ; edited by Harold Orel. - London : Macmillan , 1978. - (His The new Wessex edition).

Thomas Hardy's epic drama: a study of The Dynasts.
H Orel Lawrence, University of Kansas Publications, 1963

Hardy's Poetic Vision in the Dynasts: The Diorama of a Dream S Dean
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977

The overworld debate in Thomas Hardy' s The dynasts -
JL Harris University of North Carolina at Greensboro , 1988

[CITATION] The dynasts: unity in irony, a critical study. HG Posey
University of Wisconsin, 1964

Thomas Hardy, Monism, and the Carnival Tradition: The One and the Many in the Dynasts

G. Glen Wickens () ハードカバー (2002/08/01) Univ of Toronto Pr

Thomas Hardy's Tragic Poetry: The Lyrics and the Dynasts
Katherine Kearney Maynard (
)

Thomas Hardy's tragic poetry: the lyrics and The dynasts
KK Maynard Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press, 1991

Thomas Hardy and the Cosmic Mind: A New Reading of The Dynasts - JO Bailey -
Chapel Hill : The University of North Carolina Press, 1956

The dynasts; an epic-drama of the war with Napoleon. - T Hardy London, New York, Macmillan; St. Martin 's Press, 1965

Thomas Hardy; a study of the Wessex novels, the poems, and The dynasts. HC Duffin -
Manchester : UP of Manchester, 1937

Thomas Hardy and the Cosmic Mind: A New Reading of the Dynasts

中文:

吴笛所著的《哈代研究》浙江文艺出版社, 1994年版

*****新知

『統治者』(第十冊)有一字 Inniskillens,當初翻譯的人不知道意思(p.1578 )。現在,我們可以了解 它是愛爾蘭的皇軍:

*****2009

The Dynasts is "an epic-drama of the war with Napoleon, in three parts, nineteen acts and one hundred and thirty scenes" by Thomas Hardy, whose parts were published in 1904, 1906 and 1908 respectively. The action is impossible to present on stage due to its elaborate battle-scenes and it is therefore usually counted as a closet drama.

The design of The Dynasts is extremely ambitious, on a similar scale to War and Peace. Scenes of ordinary life are juxtaposed with scenes involving the principal historical figures of the age, and concentrating on their desire to found dynasties in order to preserve their power. There are extensive descriptions of landscape and battle scenes that are characterised by shifts of visual perspective that anticipate cinematic techniques. The drama is also notable for an extensive tragic chorus of metaphysical figures who observe and discuss the events.

Hardy regarded The Dynasts as his magnum opus and devoted much of his later life to its completion, but the work was not well-received and later critics have seen little reason to reverse that judgement. There is a case to be made, however, for the drama's having pioneered techniques that would later be regarded as characterising literary Modernism. Moreover, The Dynasts remains of interest to those studying Hardy's novels, both for the insight into his world-view and for its examination of a character mentioned famously but briefly at the end of Tess of the d'Urbervilles: the "President of the Immortals".

Links


*****台大圖書館
Main Auth Hardy, Thomas, 1840-1928
Title/Auth The dynasts, an epic-drama of the war with Napoleon / with intro. and notes by Torajiro Sawamura 澤村寅二郎
Imprint Tokyo : Kenkyusha, 1939

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