《中英對照讀新聞》Singing ’rewires’ damaged brain 唱歌讓受傷大腦「重新通電」
Teaching stroke patients to sing "rewires" their brains, helping them recover their speech, say scientists. By singing, patients use a different area of the brain from the area involved in speech. If a person’s "speech centre" is damaged by a stroke, they can learn to use their "singing centre" instead.
An ongoing clinical trial, they said, has shown how the brain responds to this "melodic intonation therapy". The therapy is already established as a medical technique.
Most of the connections between brain areas that control movement and those that control hearing are on the left side of the brain. But there’s a sort of corresponding hole on the right side. For some reason, it’s not as endowed with these connections, so the left side is used much more in speech. But as patients learn to put their words to melodies, the crucial connections form on the right side of their brains.
During the therapy sessions, patients are taught to put their words to simple melodies. After a single session, a stroke patients who was are not able to form any intelligible words learned to say the phrase "I am thirsty" by combining each syllable with the note of a melody.
ongoing：形容詞，正在進行的。例句：No agreement has yet been reached and the negotiations are still ongoing.（目前談判尚未達成協議，仍在進行當中。）
be endowed with：片語，與生俱有……。例句：Some lucky people are endowed with both brains and beauty.（一些幸運的人智慧與美貌兼具。）
intelligible：形容詞，（說話或寫字）清晰的。例句：She was so upset when she spoke that she was hardly intelligible.（她難過到說話都說不太清楚。）
v., -wired, -wir·ing, -wires. v.tr.
To provide with new wiring: rewired the old house.
To install new wiring.
n., pl. ter·ze ri·me (tĕr'tsĕ rē'mĕ).
A verse form of Italian origin consisting of tercets of 10 or 11 syllables with the middle line rhyming with the first and third lines of the following tercet.
[Italian : terza, feminine of terzo, third + rima, rhyme.]
A villanelle (also known as villanesque) is a nineteen-line poetic form consisting of five tercets followed by a quatrain. There are two refrains and two repeating rhymes, with the first and third line of the first tercet repeated alternately until the last stanza, which includes both repeated lines. The villanelle is an example of a fixed verse form. The word derives from Latin, then Italian, and is related to the initial subject of the form being the pastoral.
The form started as a simple ballad-like song with no fixed form; this fixed quality would only come much later, from the poem "Villanelle (J'ay perdu ma Tourterelle)" (1606) by Jean Passerat. From this point, its evolution into the "fixed form" used in the present day is debated. Despite its French origins, the majority of villanelles have been written in English, a trend which began in the late nineteenth century. The villanelle has been noted as a form that frequently treats the subject of obsessions, and one which appeals to outsiders; its defining feature of repetition prevents it from having a conventional tone.
The word villanelle derives from the Italian villanella, referring to a rustic song or dance, and which comes from villano, meaning peasant or villein. Villano derives from the Medieval Latin villanus, meaning a "farmhand". The etymology of the word relates to the fact that the form's initial distinguishing feature was the pastoral subject.