2017年11月1日 星期三

Thomas Hardy (1840–1928), "Jude The Obscure" "The Man He Killed" by Thomas Hardy 1902

#ThomasHardy's #JudeTheObscure was first published #onthisday1895. Our first copy reached the shelves three months later.
Still there!

2004「我睡前讀一下Thomas Hardy『無名的裘德』(Jude The Obscure),張谷若譯,人民文學,2004……我對於『無名的裘德』的「引詩之翻譯」和譯注很佩服:展現翻譯者對於希臘文、拉丁文了解,又對於英國的許多文化知識(『聖經』及其『諸外書』、《羅馬帝國衰亡史》不朽的第15章……)和對於牛津大學的人文地理(Christminster)的深入了解。……」

張谷若先生翻譯很用心,不過也有些可以討論的。譬如說,第一段的a cottage piano 翻譯成「豎形小鋼琴」,很好(其實,後文老師回來取它時稱它為pianoforte,1710年之語,意即能發出強音和弱音的羽管鍵琴【At this date Mr. Phillotson sent for his pianoforte, and it gave Jude a lead.】,又,The piano was dispatched…所以它與鋼琴同義);不過,也有些辭,我們現在看起來比較「隔」,譬如說,the farm bailiff翻譯成「一個地里的監工」,不只the和 a 沒弄清楚,現在的人可能用「地主的管家」等較容易了解。(bailiff (LAND) noun [C] (in Britain) a person whose job is to take care of someone else's land or property),又,「地里幹活」……。 

這是老式翻譯本之印刷方式,即,整本書(含譯注)絕少附原文,所以習慣翻譯不同會弄不清楚,譬如說,His childish idea was, in fact, a pushing to the extremity of mathematical precision what is everywhere known as Grimm's Law -- an aggrandizement of rough rules to ideal completeness.其中的Grimm's Law 翻譯成「格力姆定律」(1785-63),我們可能習慣稱之為「格林姆定律」。


第四節:Jude then dropped behind, waited a few minutes to recover breath, and went home with a consciousness of having struck a blow for Christminster. 對基督寺已經開了第一砲的感覺—這是直譯,或許是「有點譜了!」(strike a blow for sth 為to do something which supports or defends something:) 

我再引第一部「在瑪麗格倫」(AT MARYGREEN)第一節最後處,離校的老師向11歲的主角說的話和之後的翻譯和注解:
"I shan't forget you, Jude," he said, smiling, as the cart moved off. "Be a good boy, remember; and be kind to animals and birds, and read all you can. And if ever you come to Christminster remember you hunt me out for old acquaintance' sake." 
The cart creaked across the green, and disappeared round the corner by the rectory-house. The boy returned to thedraw-well at the edge of the greensward, where he had left his buckets when he went to help his patron and teacher in the loading. 
「你要是萬一有上基督寺*的那一天,那你看在老朋友的面上,千萬可要找我去。別忘啦。」
大車噶吱噶吱地從青草地**上走過去,到了教區長*的住宅那兒,一拐彎兒就再看不見了。……

*表示前文都有譯注。
**英國村莊裡面或旁邊,都有一片青草的空地,屬於公眾,村莊或以為名。「瑪麗格倫」一名中的「格倫」,即青草地之意。

HC小評:「大車噶吱噶吱地從青草地……」「噶吱噶吱地」很妙,不過,「大車」與起頭第一段的「小車」,「相映成趣」。 
THE schoolmaster was leaving the village, and everybody seemed sorry. The miller at Cresscombe lent him thesmall white tilted cart 帶白蓬的小車and horse to carry his goods to the city of his destination, about twenty miles off, such a vehicle proving of quite sufficient size for the departing teacher's effects. For the schoolhouse had been partly furnished by the managers, and the only cumbersome article possessed by the master, in addition to thepacking-case of books, was 
******
『名與義是不一定相應的;知道這,就破除以名為實的執著。(印順導師<<成佛之道>> p.334)』
【hc:古訓「望文生義」;一代有一代之文;一代有一代之治;一代有一代之生活……】


無名的裘德(Jude The Obscure) / (英)哈代 人民文學出版社 1989 534頁3.哈代選集 還鄉(The Return of the Native)人民文學出版社 1968年版 注:網上漢譯全文是王守仁譯本

前幾天,看見書店賣大陸翻印的Jude the Obscure (The world's classics. Edited by Patricia Ingham. (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1985) ),就買了下來,因為它有手頭Thomas Hardy『無名的裘德』(Jude The Obscure,張谷若譯,北京人民文學,2004)所沒有的詳細地圖(不知張谷若譯本為什麼它不附上)、英文導言和注解(這方面張谷若譯本更詳細,不過牛津大學版本很重視版本的對校,這是張谷若譯本缺的)。后來,我到Hardy的協會,發現近數十年才是研究Hardy的熱門時期,如隔幾年就有一新的版本和傳記推出。 

我讀些小說,發現張谷若譯本有些了不起的地方,不過也難免有些小缺點。

用譯注說明暫時找不到出處—這到現在還沒解。


She was not there now, and `the embroidery of imagination upon the stuff of nature' so depicted her past presence that a void was in his heart which nothing could fill. A pollard willow stood close to the place, and that willow was different ... Chapter Chapter 7 of Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy 
文中`the embroidery of imagination upon the stuff of nature' 這小段,哈代用引號,翻譯成「強烈的想像在原來的素底子增加了彩繡」--不過翻譯者說明出處不清楚。

幾十年之後還有一為學界的人提出同樣的問題,也還沒解。
Date: Tue, 22 Apr 1997 10:21:01 -0400 (EDT)
From: TAYLOR@bcvms.bc.edu
Subject: Embroidery of imagination
In Jude the Obscure, Thomas Hardy quotes the phrase, "embroidery of imagination
upon the stuff of nature". Does anyone know the source of this phrase? 
Thanks
D.Taylor
taylor@bc.edu
上句中我學新字:發現pollard是英法同義(不知poll是否也是如此),供參考。


The beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in its achievements, but in its aims and impulses; its true history lay, not among things done, but among things willed.
--from TESS OF THE D'UBERVILLES

Tess of the d'Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy: Part 6 Chapter 49 ...

www.literaturepage.com/read/tess-of-the-durbervilles-377.html

The beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in its achievements, but in its aims and impulses; its true history lay, not among things done, but among things ...



Thomas Hardy 的家族提過caul這回事,他將它寫在Return of the Native (Book iii chapter 7)。我抄張谷若先生的譯本供參考:


Fairway, Sam, and another placed their shillings on the table, and the man turned to Christian.

"No, sir," said Christian, drawing back, with a quick gaze of misgiving. "I am only a poor chap come to look on, an it please ye, sir. I don't so much as know how you do it. If so be I was sure of getting it I would put down the shilling; but I couldn't otherwise."

"I think you might almost be sure," said the pedlar. "In fact, now I look into your face, even if I can't say you are sure to win, I can say that I never saw anything look more like winning in my life."

"You'll anyhow have the same chance as the rest of us," said Sam.
"And the extra luck of being the last comer," said another. 「不但有同樣的機會,還格外有最後來的好運氣那,」【後來的好運氣:英國諺語:「最後的有運氣,髒土裡撿便士。」
hc案:還找不到原文;義大利說法:The last comer shuts the door. Source: (Italian). The later comer is ill lodged.Source: (Italian).】。

"And I was born wi' a caul, and perhaps can be no more ruined than drowned?" Christian added, beginning to give way.「俺是.戴著白帽子下生的,水裡淹不死俺,大約別的法子也毀不了俺吧?」克瑞開始心活起來,補充了一句話。



Are you enjoying yourself at the moment? Please stop.

Hardy, Thomas 

Pronunciation: /ˈhɑːdi/ 

(1840–1928), English novelist and poet. Much of his work deals with the struggle against the indifferent force that inflicts the sufferings and ironies of life. Notable novelsThe Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891), and Jude the Obscure (1896).
"Jude The Obscure"—the last of Thomas Hardy's novels—includes probably the most painful scene in literature. One biography argues, however, that it is Hardy's poetry, not his fiction, that was his finest work. The writer was born on June 2nd 1840

Thomas Hardy was born on this day in 1840
ECON.ST





"The Man He Killed" by Thomas Hardy
Had he and I but met
By some old ancient inn,
We should have set us down to wet
Right many a nipperkin!
But ranged as infantry,
And staring face to face,
I shot at him as he at me,
And killed him in his place.
I shot him dead because--
Because he was my foe,
Just so: my foe of course he was;
That's clear enough; although
He thought he'd 'list, perhaps,
Off-hand like--just as I--
Was out of work--had sold his traps--
No other reason why.
Yes; quaint and curious war is!
You shoot a fellow down
You'd treat, if met where any bar is,
Or help to half a crown.


幫助讀者直接閱讀英詩的書,都值得推薦。


"The Man He Killed" 這首的註解,在第184頁。

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