2012年1月21日 星期六

dirge, elegy, mourn, Ariel

. Grieving on Facebook: How the Site Helps People

By Lauren Katims

Facebook doesn't just bring together long-lost friends; it also provides an outlet for mourning people who have died

Even as technology is drastically changing the process by which books are made, with the computerisation of printing and typesetting, the club is hardly singing dirges. "If there was never, from this moment on, another book published, there would be fodder for people who wanted to collect books—and do interesting things with books—for the next 200 years," says its director, Eric Holzenberg.


緣起 我(HC)上周讀巴特(R. Barthe)的《文之悅》,它引的霍布斯詩為題詞:「恐懼是我唯一激情。」我查The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations 時,發現該書有一段引言,初讀幾乎不懂,就向瑞麟兄求救,經他提示之後,我幾乎通了。本周更進一步查些資料,現在將我們的通信記錄下來。特別謝謝RL。
Dear RL, 這引言出自 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations
John Skelton(1460?-1529)

For the soul of Philip Sparrow,
That was late slain at Carrow
Among the Nunnes Black,
For that sweet soul's sake
And for all sparrows' souls
Set in our bread-rolls,
Pater noster qui
With an Ave Mari.
--The Sparrow's Dirge

底下是hc查些網路上的資料。讀者應先讀下面rl解釋的故事大要(也可參考許多版本的原文『英國文學文選』中的作者身世和作品大要,以及本本文最後指出The New Penguin Book of English Verse 的1500年中 有此詩節選),再回來了解細節。

slay verb [T] slew or slayed, slain
1 UK OLD USE OR LITERARY to kill in a violent way:
St George slew the dragon.

2 (used especially in newspapers) to murder someone:
He was found slain in an alley two blocks from his apartment.

noun [C] MAINLY US
a murder】

--- 主禱文Pater noster, qui…
Sign of the Cross and the Our Father. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Pater noster, qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum. Adveniat regnum tuum. ... Pater noster, qui es in caelis, Father our who are in Heaven sanctificetur nomen tuum. may-be-hallowed name Your Adveniat regnum tuum


--- Ave Mari 聖母頌
The Holy Rosary - Ave Mari 聖母頌,它為基都教失傳的prayer and devotion.法
Two Renaissance Chorals (Adoramus Te / Ave Maria) - SSA, a ...

要解這段文字可得先把John Skelton作The Book of Philip Sparrow的來龍去脈弄清楚,似乎找個對英國文學有深入研究的人比較恰當,不過明晨我會約略整理回覆。
引文中的Nunnes Black應該跟nunnery有關,
而For that sweet soul sake我看For that sweet soul's sake才對。

21:00 2004/5/30
查閱手邊的兩大本Dictionary of Quotations (Oxford和Bartlett's Family),並沒有你函中所引的文句。
再查手邊的協志叢書:英國文學史,John Skelton的相關資料也寥寥無幾(總共三行,卷一p.133),茲鈔錄如下:
6.雀兒菲麗普之死(The Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe)作於1510年左右。女學生珍‧斯克魯帕所寵愛的一隻雀兒被她所豢養的貓給吃掉了。詩人代她寫這首哀悼的詩。一千四百行的遊戲之作,但是也諷刺了羅馬教會的飾終典禮。
協志叢書所記之作品名稱,我想(未經查證)應該是當時的英文,現在都寫成The Book of Philip Sparrow。
女 學生珍‧斯克魯帕的原文名字為Jane Scrope【Scroupe-hc】,我猜她是Carrow Abbey的修女,這是由Nunnes Black推斷的,但是我目前不知道Black代表什麼意思(膚色嗎?),我昨晚說nunnes跟nunnery有關,或許是nun的複數?

那隻咬死雀兒的貓是不是女孩飼養的,我不確定,有一說是在Carrow Abbey的貓。
這 篇出眾的詩是史克爾頓(協志叢書譯作斯凱爾頓)決定嘗試以新格式(現在稱為史克爾頓體)作詩的最好範例,當時正值英語在快速改變的時候,這一首詩是傳統和 新潮之間的一個超級妥協。就好像許多孩子有時候會煞費苦心地為他們死去的寵物舉行埋葬儀式一樣,Jane Scrope也不例外。整首詩大致瀏覽了一遍,應該只是一種模擬彌撒吧。

暫時還沒有著手逐行翻譯,正在思考引文中的 qui 是否和法文的 qui 同一個字?也正在想 dirge 和 elegy 的差異?但是應該對你有丁點兒幫助才是。
08:30 2004/5/31


挽歌:解釋 哀悼死者的歌【中文「牽引」義】。《南朝宋˙劉義慶˙世說新語˙任誕》:「袁山松出遊,每好令左右作挽歌。」亦作「輓歌」【hc:據辭海解釋:漢武帝勞役之人的喪歌,後來李延年有二曲】。相反詞「頌歌」 【hc:不知道中文的名作為何?】

Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms
Dirge, a song of lamentation in mourning for someone's death; or a poem in the form of such a song, and usually less elaborate than anelegy. An ancient genre employed by Pindar in Greek and notably by Propertius in Latin. The dirge also occurs in English, most famously in the ariel's song 'Full fathom five thy father lies' in shakespear's The Tempest.


  • 発音記号əriəl]
1 エアリアル:Shakespeare作Tempestに登場する空気の精.
2 《天文》アリエル:天王星(Uranus)の衛星の一つ.

我抄這段,才恍然大悟梁兄翻譯的;大海,大海;之作者Iris MURDOCK的先生John Bayley所寫的《輓歌》(Elegy for Iris,有天下文化出版社翻譯本),實在有典故,都沒被翻譯和導讀人員點破,因為Iris 酷愛莎士比亞的Tempest
我抄的沒錯。英國文學中當然有許多人寫dirges,莎士比亞作品中的,只不過是較為出名。據M. H. Abram的The Glossary of Literature Terms,輓歌(dirge)不同於哀歌(elegy—hc:我們或聽過Thomas Gray 於1751年寫的Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard,The New Penguin Book of English Verse,p. 484;美國總統甘迺迪遇刺後,名詩人Auden寫Elegy,由斯特拉文斯基譜曲)的地方,是輓歌較短、較不茍形式、並且,通常輓歌可配曲唱。除了前引的莎士比亞之「海下長眠」,還可舉William Collins的A Somg From Shakespeare's Cymbeline.


Table of Contents
The New Penguin Book of English Verse-
This is an anthology of English verse. Poems are ordered by date of composition rather than in monolithic slabs devoted to individual poets. It also includes a high proportion of anonymous poetry and written on surfaces other than paper.
Skeltonics are the prime effect used in "The Tunning of Elinour Rumming", which is a rollicking satire of an alewife who adulterates her brew. An example of skeltonics can clearly be seen in the following short excerpt from Phyllyp Sparrowe:
Somtyme he wolde gaspe
Whan he sawe a waspe;
A fly or a gnat,
He wolde flye at that
And prytely he wold pant
Whan he saw an ant;
Lorde, how wolde hop
After the greesop!
And whan I sayd, Phyp, Phyp,
Than he wold lepe and skyp,
And take me by the lyp.

This essay written by Karen Elaine Smyth, Queen's University of Belfast

Title: From Chaucer to Tennyson
Author: Henry A. Beers
Release Date: March 17, 2004 [eBook #11618]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


v., mourned, mourn·ing, mourns. v.intr.
  1. To feel or express grief or sorrow. See synonyms at grieve.
  2. To show grief for a death by conventional signs, as by wearing black clothes.
  3. To make a low, indistinct, mournful sound. Used especially of a dove.
  1. To feel or express deep regret for: mourned the wasted years.
  2. To grieve over (someone who has died).
  3. To utter sorrowfully.

[Middle English mournen, from Old English murnan.]

mourner mourn'er n.
mourningly mourn'ing·ly adv.